Effective energy efficiency policy implementation targetion "New Modern Energy CONsumers" in the Greater Mekong Subregion

Research task

Task 1: Baseline information and energy data analysis
Proposed research: desk research to obtain baseline information and an assessment of the current energy situation. This will include Energy Intensity (EI) development over time, an inventory of energy efficiency targets and policies, the projection effect of new modern energy consumers in energy demand by using LEAP model, and an analysis of the availability of energy data at the end-user level in GMS countries for introduction of new EE policies (for monitoring and evaluation purposes). The energy baselines resulting from this task will serve as a basis for the analysis of cost-benefit at the household and national levels in Task 5.

Task 2: Technological Perspective
Proposed research: a market survey/ inventory of availability and rollout of energy efficiency technologies for household use (electricity for lighting, heating, cooling, and appliances; fuels for cooking and transport) per participating country. This will incorporate an analysis of the share of import and local production, trade barriers in relation to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), adaptation to local demand and conditions, and an analysis of quality levels and labels. Where appropriate, a market analysis of technology knowledge levels and of the availability of skilled labor for installing and maintaining energy efficient technologies will also be conducted.

Task 3: Socio-economic perspective
Proposed research: a household survey questionnaire per participating country, which will assess existing energy use as well as the socio-economic opportunities and barriers to deployment of energy efficient technologies amongst new modern energy consumers. This task will identify consumer barriers, such as knowledge constraints (‘energy literacy’), behaviors, and access to finance and technologies. It will also analyze differences between urban and rural new modern energy consumers.

Task 4: Energy efficiency policy analysis
Proposed research: desk research to identify examples of best practice in EE policies that target the household sector, e.g. in OECD countries, Asia and other countries. Assessment of these policies for applicability to the specific technological, economic and other challenges for new modern energy consumers in GMS countries (as identified in Tasks 1- 3). Stakeholder consultation in each of the GMS countries to analyze the extent to which re-developed and new policy proposals, such as microfinance energy service company (ESCO), energy labels for the ‘energy illiterate’, or policies adjusted to non-liberalized energy market, are being accepted by governmental and local commercial (ESCOs, banking sector) stakeholders.

Task 5: Cost-benefit analyses of energy efficiency policy framework
Proposed research: Cost-benefit analysis of EE policy framework, as described in Task 4, that will assess cost-benefits at the household (new modern energy consumer) and national level for each GMS country. Analysis will cover the effect of fuel and electricity subsidies, where applicable, on the viability of energy efficient technology.

Task 6: Institutional conditions
Proposed research: desk research analyzing the organization of “energy” in government structures in relation to introduction of new EE policy. This will cover specific organizational units and organization of interdepartmental coordination, e.g. in terms of building, industry and energy departments. Structured interviews with governmental stakeholders will be undertaken to analyze current institutional conditions, including monitoring and evaluation of energy policy. The development of a decision making support tool for the design and implementation of EE policy will draw on the wider literature on EE governance.

Task 7: Discussion and dissemination of results
Proposed research: this task will take place throughout the project and will disseminate the research results from Tasks 1-6 with a wide range of stakeholders, including government, private sector, academia and NGOs in each GMS country and elsewhere. Papers will be published in academic journals, while a webpage and two policy briefings (published in the local language) for each country will ensure the results reach multiple audiences. Towards the end of the project, an international dissemination workshop will be organized in Bangkok for which stakeholders from all GMS countries will be invited.